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sudoku_c++.cpp


sudoku_c++.cpp


/* Copyright 2017, Gurobi Optimization, Inc. */
/*
  Sudoku example.

  The Sudoku board is a 9x9 grid, which is further divided into a 3x3 grid
  of 3x3 grids.  Each cell in the grid must take a value from 0 to 9.
  No two grid cells in the same row, column, or 3x3 subgrid may take the
  same value.

  In the MIP formulation, binary variables x[i,j,v] indicate whether
  cell <i,j> takes value 'v'.  The constraints are as follows:
    1. Each cell must take exactly one value (sum_v x[i,j,v] = 1)
    2. Each value is used exactly once per row (sum_i x[i,j,v] = 1)
    3. Each value is used exactly once per column (sum_j x[i,j,v] = 1)
    4. Each value is used exactly once per 3x3 subgrid (sum_grid x[i,j,v] = 1)

  Input datasets for this example can be found in examples/data/sudoku*.
*/

#include "gurobi_c++.h"
#include <sstream>
using namespace std;

#define sd 3
#define n (sd*sd)

string itos(int i) {stringstream s; s << i; return s.str(); }

int
main(int   argc,
     char *argv[])
{
  try {
    GRBEnv env = GRBEnv();
    GRBModel model = GRBModel(env);

    GRBVar vars[n][n][n];
    int i, j, v;

    // Create 3-D array of model variables

    for (i = 0; i < n; i++) {
      for (j = 0; j < n; j++) {
        for (v = 0; v < n; v++) {
          string s = "G_" + itos(i) + "_" + itos(j) + "_" + itos(v);
          vars[i][j][v] = model.addVar(0.0, 1.0, 0.0, GRB_BINARY, s);
        }
      }
    }

    // Add constraints

    // Each cell must take one value

    for (i = 0; i < n; i++) {
      for (j = 0; j < n; j++) {
        GRBLinExpr expr = 0;
        for (v = 0; v < n; v++)
          expr += vars[i][j][v];
        string s = "V_" + itos(i) + "_" + itos(j);
        model.addConstr(expr, GRB_EQUAL, 1.0, s);
      }
    }

    // Each value appears once per row

    for (i = 0; i < n; i++) {
      for (v = 0; v < n; v++) {
        GRBLinExpr expr = 0;
        for (j = 0; j < n; j++)
          expr += vars[i][j][v];
        string s = "R_" + itos(i) + "_" + itos(v);
        model.addConstr(expr == 1.0, s);
      }
    }

    // Each value appears once per column

    for (j = 0; j < n; j++) {
      for (v = 0; v < n; v++) {
        GRBLinExpr expr = 0;
        for (i = 0; i < n; i++)
          expr += vars[i][j][v];
        string s = "C_" + itos(j) + "_" + itos(v);
        model.addConstr(expr == 1.0, s);
      }
    }

    // Each value appears once per sub-grid

    for (v = 0; v < n; v++) {
      for (int i0 = 0; i0 < sd; i0++) {
        for (int j0 = 0; j0 < sd; j0++) {
          GRBLinExpr expr = 0;
          for (int i1 = 0; i1 < sd; i1++) {
            for (int j1 = 0; j1 < sd; j1++) {
              expr += vars[i0*sd+i1][j0*sd+j1][v];
            }
          }

          string s = "Sub_" + itos(v) + "_" + itos(i0) + "_" + itos(j0);
          model.addConstr(expr == 1.0, s);
        }
      }
    }

    // Fix variables associated with pre-specified cells

    char input[10];
    for (i = 0; i < n; i++) {
      cin >> input;
      for (j = 0; j < n; j++) {
        int val = (int) input[j] - 48 - 1; // 0-based

        if (val >= 0)
          vars[i][j][val].set(GRB_DoubleAttr_LB, 1.0);
      }
    }

    // Optimize model

    model.optimize();

    // Write model to file

    model.write("sudoku.lp");

    cout << endl;
    for (i = 0; i < n; i++) {
      for (j = 0; j < n; j++) {
        for (v = 0; v < n; v++) {
          if (vars[i][j][v].get(GRB_DoubleAttr_X) > 0.5)
            cout << v+1;
        }
      }
      cout << endl;
    }
    cout << endl;
  } catch(GRBException e) {
    cout << "Error code = " << e.getErrorCode() << endl;
    cout << e.getMessage() << endl;
  } catch (...) {
    cout << "Error during optimization" << endl;
  }

  return 0;
}