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workforce5_c.c


workforce5_c.c


/* Copyright 2017, Gurobi Optimization, Inc. */

/* Assign workers to shifts; each worker may or may not be available on a
   particular day. We use multi-objective optimization to solve the model.
   The highest-priority objective minimizes the sum of the slacks
   (i.e., the total number of uncovered shifts). The secondary objective
   minimizes the difference between the maximum and minimum number of
   shifts worked among all workers.  The second optimization is allowed
   to degrade the first objective by up to the smaller value of 10% and 2 */

#include <stdlib.h>
#include <stdio.h>
#include <math.h>
#include <string.h>
#include "gurobi_c.h"

int solveAndPrint(GRBmodel* model,
                  int nShifts, int nWorkers, char** Workers,
                  int* status);


#define xcol(w,s)         nShifts*w+s
#define slackcol(s)       nShifts*nWorkers+s
#define totSlackcol       nShifts*(nWorkers+1)
#define totShiftscol(w)   nShifts*(nWorkers+1)+1+w
#define minShiftcol       (nShifts+1)*(nWorkers+1)
#define maxShiftcol       (nShifts+1)*(nWorkers+1)+1
#define MAXSTR     128


int
main(int   argc,
     char *argv[])
{
  GRBenv   *env = NULL;
  GRBenv   *menv = NULL;
  GRBmodel *model = NULL;
  int       error = 0, status;
  int       s, w, col;
  int      *cbeg = NULL;
  int      *cind = NULL;
  int       idx;
  double   *cval = NULL;
  char     *sense = NULL;
  char      vname[MAXSTR], cname[MAXSTR];

  /* Sample data */
  const int nShifts = 14;
  const int nWorkers = 8;

  /* Sets of days and workers */
  char* Shifts[] =
    { "Mon1", "Tue2", "Wed3", "Thu4", "Fri5", "Sat6",
      "Sun7", "Mon8", "Tue9", "Wed10", "Thu11", "Fri12", "Sat13",
      "Sun14" };
  char* Workers[] =
    { "Amy", "Bob", "Cathy", "Dan", "Ed", "Fred", "Gu", "Tobi" };

  /* Number of workers required for each shift */
  double shiftRequirements[] =
    { 3, 2, 4, 4, 5, 6, 5, 2, 2, 3, 4, 6, 7, 5 };

  /* Worker availability: 0 if the worker is unavailable for a shift */
  double availability[][14] =
    { { 0, 1, 1, 0, 1, 0, 1, 0, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1 },
      { 1, 1, 0, 0, 1, 1, 0, 1, 0, 0, 1, 0, 1, 0 },
      { 0, 0, 1, 1, 1, 0, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1 },
      { 0, 1, 1, 0, 1, 1, 0, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1 },
      { 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 0, 1, 1, 1, 0, 1, 0, 1, 1 },
      { 1, 1, 1, 0, 0, 1, 0, 1, 1, 0, 0, 1, 1, 1 },
      { 0, 1, 1, 1, 0, 1, 1, 0, 1, 1, 1, 0, 1, 1 },
      { 1, 1, 1, 0, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1 } };

  /* Create environment */
  error = GRBloadenv(&env, "workforce5.log");
  if (error) goto QUIT;

  /* Create initial model */
  error = GRBnewmodel(env, &model, "workforce5",
                      (nShifts + 1) * (nWorkers + 1) + 2,
                      NULL, NULL, NULL, NULL, NULL);
  if (error) goto QUIT;

  /* get model environment */
  menv = GRBgetenv(model);
  if (!menv) {
    fprintf(stderr, "Error: could not get model environment\n");
    goto QUIT;
  }

  /* Initialize assignment decision variables:
     x[w][s] == 1 if worker w is assigned to shift s.
     This is no longer a pure assignment model, so we must
     use binary variables. */
  for (w = 0; w < nWorkers; ++w)
  {
    for (s = 0; s < nShifts; ++s)
    {
      col = xcol(w, s);
      sprintf(vname, "%s.%s", Workers[w], Shifts[s]);
      error = GRBsetcharattrelement(model, "VType", col, GRB_BINARY);
      if (error) goto QUIT;
      error = GRBsetdblattrelement(model, "UB", col, availability[w][s]);
      if (error) goto QUIT;
      error = GRBsetstrattrelement(model, "VarName", col, vname);
      if (error) goto QUIT;
    }
  }

  /* Initialize slack decision variables */
  for (s = 0; s < nShifts; ++s)
  {
    sprintf(vname, "%sSlack", Shifts[s]);
    error = GRBsetstrattrelement(model, "VarName", slackcol(s), vname);
    if (error) goto QUIT;
  }


  /* Initialize total slack decision variable */
  error = GRBsetstrattrelement(model, "VarName", totSlackcol, "totSlack");
  if (error) goto QUIT;

  /* Initialize variables to count the total shifts worked by each worker */
  for (w = 0; w < nWorkers; ++w)
  {
    sprintf(vname, "%sTotShifts", Workers[w]);
    error = GRBsetstrattrelement(model, "VarName", totShiftscol(w), vname);
    if (error) goto QUIT;
  }

  /* Initialize max and min #shifts variables */
  sprintf(vname, "minShifts");
  error = GRBsetstrattrelement(model, "VarName", minShiftcol, vname);
  sprintf(vname, "maxShifts");
  error = GRBsetstrattrelement(model, "VarName", maxShiftcol, vname);

  /* Make space for constraint data */
  cbeg = malloc(sizeof(int) * nShifts);
  if (!cbeg) goto QUIT;
  cind = malloc(sizeof(int) * nShifts * (nWorkers + 1));
  if (!cind) goto QUIT;
  cval = malloc(sizeof(double) * nShifts * (nWorkers + 1));
  if (!cval) goto QUIT;
  sense = malloc(sizeof(char) * (nShifts + nWorkers));
  if (!sense) goto QUIT;

  /* Constraint: assign exactly shiftRequirements[s] workers
     to each shift s, plus the slack */
  idx = 0;
  for (s = 0; s < nShifts; ++s)
  {
    cbeg[s] = idx;
    sense[s] = GRB_EQUAL;
    for (w = 0; w < nWorkers; ++w)
    {
      cind[idx] = xcol(w, s);
      cval[idx++] = 1.0;
    }
    cind[idx] = slackcol(s);
    cval[idx++] = 1.0;
  }
  error = GRBaddconstrs(model, nShifts, idx, cbeg, cind, cval, sense,
                        shiftRequirements, Shifts);
  if (error) goto QUIT;

  /* Constraint: set totSlack column equal to the total slack */
  idx = 0;
  for (s = 0; s < nShifts; ++s)
  {
    cind[idx] = slackcol(s);
    cval[idx++] = 1.0;
  }
  cind[idx] = totSlackcol;
  cval[idx++] = -1.0;
  error = GRBaddconstr(model, idx, cind, cval, GRB_EQUAL,
                       0.0, "totSlack");
  if (error) goto QUIT;

  /* Constraint: compute the total number of shifts for each worker */
  for (w = 0; w < nWorkers; ++w)
  {
    idx = 0;
    for (s = 0; s < nShifts; ++s)
    {
      cind[idx] = xcol(w,s);
      cval[idx++] = 1.0;
    }
    sprintf(cname, "totShifts%s", Workers[w]);
    cind[idx] = totShiftscol(w);
    cval[idx++] = -1.0;
    error = GRBaddconstr(model, idx, cind, cval, GRB_EQUAL, 0.0, cname);
    if (error) goto QUIT;
  }

  /* Constraint: set minShift/maxShift variable to less <=/>= to the
   * number of shifts among all workers */
  for (w = 0; w < nWorkers; w++) {
    cind[w] = totShiftscol(w);
  }
  error = GRBaddgenconstrMin(model, NULL, minShiftcol, nWorkers, cind, GRB_INFINITY);
  if (error) goto QUIT;
  error = GRBaddgenconstrMax(model, NULL, maxShiftcol, nWorkers, cind, -GRB_INFINITY);
  if (error) goto QUIT;

  /* Set global sense for ALL objectives */
  error = GRBsetintattr(model, GRB_INT_ATTR_MODELSENSE, GRB_MINIMIZE);
  if (error) goto QUIT;

  /* Set primary objective */
  cind[0] = totSlackcol;
  cval[0] = 1.0;
  error = GRBsetobjectiven(model, 0, 2, 1.0, 2.0, 0.10, "TotalSlack",
                           0.0, 1, cind, cval);
  if (error) goto QUIT;

  /* Set secondary objective */
  cind[0] = maxShiftcol;
  cval[0] = 1.0;
  cind[1] = minShiftcol;
  cval[1] = -1.0;
  error = GRBsetobjectiven(model, 1, 1, 1.0, 0, 0, "Fairness",
                           0.0, 2, cind, cval);
  if (error) goto QUIT;

  /* Save problem */
  error = GRBwrite(model, "workforce5.lp");
  if (error) goto QUIT;
  error = GRBwrite(model, "workforce5.mps");
  if (error) goto QUIT;

  /* Optimize */
  error = solveAndPrint(model, nShifts, nWorkers, Workers, &status);
  if (error) goto QUIT;
  if (status != GRB_OPTIMAL) goto QUIT;

QUIT:

  /* Error reporting */

  if (error)
  {
    printf("ERROR: %s\n", GRBgeterrormsg(env));
    exit(1);
  }

  /* Free data */

  free(cbeg);
  free(cind);
  free(cval);
  free(sense);

  /* Free model */

  GRBfreemodel(model);

  /* Free environment */

  GRBfreeenv(env);

  return 0;
}


int solveAndPrint(GRBmodel* model,
                  int nShifts, int nWorkers, char** Workers,
                  int* status)
{
  int error, w;
  double val;

  error = GRBoptimize(model);
  if (error) return error;

  error = GRBgetintattr(model, "Status", status);
  if (error) return error;

  if ((*status == GRB_INF_OR_UNBD) || (*status == GRB_INFEASIBLE) ||
      (*status == GRB_UNBOUNDED))
  {
    printf("The model cannot be solved "
           "because it is infeasible or unbounded\n");
    return 0;
  }
  if (*status != GRB_OPTIMAL)
  {
    printf("Optimization was stopped with status %i\n", *status);
    return 0;
  }

  /* Print total slack and the number of shifts worked for each worker */
  error = GRBgetdblattrelement(model, "X", totSlackcol, &val);
  if (error) return error;

  printf("\nTotal slack required: %f\n", val);
  for (w = 0; w < nWorkers; ++w)
  {
    error = GRBgetdblattrelement(model, "X", totShiftscol(w), &val);
    if (error) return error;
    printf("%s worked %f shifts\n", Workers[w], val);
  }
  printf("\n");
  return 0;
}